Saturday, July 25, 2009

Thrid Year - SNDT Women's University, Mumbai, India

Communication Electronics

Semester: V
Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

1. Noise
Classification of noise, external noise (Atmospheric, extraterrestrial, industrial), Internal (Thermal, Shot, transit time, partition, low freq-flicker, excess resistor), thermal noise of series parallel resistor, thermal noise of cascaded amplifiers, noise terminology (Noise factor, Noise Figure, Sensitivity, Average noise factor), Noise factor of cascaded networks, Noise factor of amplifiers in cascade, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, Noise in transistor amplifiers, design of low noise networks, equivalent noise representation of a BJT amplifier, Network noise factors, Low noise design, Low noise amplifiers, Inter-modulation distortion.

2. Phase Locked Loop
Definition, basic operation of PLL, Tramient response of PLL, Linear model of PLL (first order), Capture range & lock range of PLL, Major building blocks of PLL – Phase detectors analog mixer, Digital (Ex-OR, RS flip-flop dual D Hip-flop) Vco’s, loop filters, Applications of PLL – FM detector, AM detector, Frequency synthesizer, tracking filter, frequency synchroniser.

3. Small Signal Amplifiers / High Frequency Amplifiers.
Equivalent Circuit of BJT amplifiers of CB, CC, CE configuration, FET CS, CD, CG configuration, High frequency amplifiers, BJT high frequency model. High frequency response of BJT/FET amplifiers, broad banding techniques, feedback, loss less feedback amplifiers, Neutralisation, cascode amplifiers, Automatic gain control, Theory of AGC.

4. Mixers
Frequency mixers, switching mixers, balanced mixers, switching type (4 diode) square law mixers, BJT mixers, FET mixers, and conversion loss of mixer.

5. Designing of RF / IF Amplifier
AM/FM modulator, demodulators

Text Books

1. Jack Smith, “Modern Communication Circuits”, 2nd, Tata McGraw Hill. (Rs. 730/-
2. J. Kennedy, “Communication Systems”, 4th, Tata McGraw. (Rs.260/-)


Semester: V Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC Credit: 04

Identification of frequency bands of interest, Propagation properties of the earth’s ionosphere.

Review of Electromagnetism
Maxell equations, wave equation, Propagation of TEM and non-TEM waves in free space and guided medium. EM radiation in free space, antennas and their properties.

Scattering Parameters
Power flow by TEM modes, relationship with to Z, Y, and h parameters. S matrix in a linear, passive, lossless network – application to microwave circuits, ABCD matrix.

Transmission line filters
Richards’ impedance transformation, synthesis of driving point immittances by means of transmission lines, unit elements, the Kuroda identities, and application to filters, Q of a filter.

Directional Couplers
S matrix, rat race, ring, and branch-line couplers, multi-conductor systems, even and odd mode propagation, broadband couplers.

Gyromagnetic Devices
Behavior of atomic magnetic moments in an external magnetic field, resonance condition, permeability above and below resonance, non-reciprocal properties, applications to circulates and YIG-tuned oscillators.

Microwave solid-state devices and applications
Schottky diode, p-I-n diode, bipolar transistor, MESFET, HEMT, HBT.
Microwave Vacuum Tube devices,

Microwave Measurements
Measurement of power, time & frequency standards and measurement, spectrum analyzer, modulation meter, high frequency oscilloscopes, electromagnetic interference (EMI) – properties, measurements and techniques to minimize its effects.
Microwave Application in radar system.

Text Books
1. Samuel Liao, "Microwave circuits and devices", 2nd edition, PHI, 2000. (Rs.150/-)
2. R. Collin, "Foundation of Microwave Engineering", 2nd edition, McGraw Hill, 1992. (Rs.943/-)
1. E.C.Jordan, "Electromagnetic Radiation", 2nd edition, PHI, 1997. (Rs.175/-)

Digital Signal Processing

Semester: V Lect: 4Hr
Branch:ENC/CST/IT Credit: 04

1. Introduction to DSP:-
Signals, Systems, signal processing, Classification of Signals, continuos and Discrete time signals, sampling of analog signals, quantisation.

2. Discrete Time signals and Systems:-
Discrete time signals, elementary signals, classification and some operation on discrete time signals, Discrete time systems, LTI systems, analysis of LTI systems, DT system analysis by difference equation, realization of the system, Correlation and auto correlation of the system.

3. Z Transforms:-
Z-transforms and its properties, Rational Z transforms, Inverse Z- transforms by power series and partial fraction expansion. Analysis of LTI system in Z domain.

4. Discrete Fourier Transforms:-
Representation of the periodic sequence, properties of Discrete Fourier series, sampling the Z-transform, DFT, DFT as linear transformation, properties of DFT, linear convolution using DFT, TWO dimensional DFT.

5. FFT Algorithms:-
Efficient Computation of DFT, algorithms, Decimation in time algorithm, Decimation in frequency algorithm, general computational consideration of FFT algorithms.

6. Digital Filter Design Techniques:-
Design of a IIR Filters from analog filters by impulse invariant and bilinear transformation method, properties of FIR Digital filters, Design of FIR filters using various window techniques. Comparison of FIR and IIR Filters.

7. Implementation of Discrete time System:- Structure for the realization of DT systems, structure for FIR system, Direct form structure, cascade form structure, lattice structure, Structure for IIR system, Direct Form, signal floe graph and transpose structure, cascade form , parallel form and lattice form.

Text Book

1. John G. Proakis, Dimitris Manolakis, “Digital Signal processing”, 3rd Edition, PHI 1999. (Rs 275/-)

Reference Book

1. S Salivahanan, “Digital Signal Processing”, 1st edition, TMH, 2000. (Approx. Rs 250/-)
2. Oppenham & Scafer, "Discrete Time Signal Processing", PHI, 1989. (Rs 225/-)
3. J. R. Johnson, "Introduction to Digital Signal Processing", PHI, 1992. (Rs 125/-)
4. D. J. Defatta, J. G. Lucas & W. S. Hodgkiss, “Digital Signal Processing”, Wiley & Sons, 1988. (Rs 195/-)
5. Ashok Ambardkar, “Analog and Digital Siganl Processing”, 2nd Edition, Thomson Publication. (Approx. Rs 300/ -)
6. Texas Instruments, DSP Processors Manual. (With Texas Kit Rs.14,000/-)

Circuit Simulation

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

Network Topology: What is network topology, incidence matrix, loop matrix, cut set matrix, fundamental relationships among branch variables, computer generation of topology matrices A, B, and D, finding a tree, generation of B and D.

Nodal Linear Network Analysis: Formulation of linear Nodal equations for linear resistive networks, Gaussian elimination algorithm, LU factorization, Crouts algorithm without row interchange.

Nodal Nonlinear Network Analysis: Introduction, topological formulation of nodal equations, fixed-point iteration concept, Newton- Raphson algorithm, successive approximations, and other methods, rate of convergence.

Hybrid Linear resistive n-port Formulation Algorithm: why hybrid matrix, formulation of linear resistive m-port, linear resistive n-port without controlled sources, inclusive of independent source within n-port.

Transient Analysis of the Circuit: State variable, order of complexity, formulation of the state equations for linear active networks, time domain specification of the state equations.

Multi step Numerical Integration Algorithm: Exactness constraint for multi step algorithm, Adams-Bashforth algorithm, Adams Moultan algorithm, stability of multi step algorithm, convergence of multi step algorithm.

Sparse Matrix technique for Circuit Analysis: Introduction, effect of ordering the equation, determination of fills in LU factorization, near optimum ordering algorithm, Optimal Crouts Algorithm.

1. Loan Chua and Pen Lin, “Computer Aided Analysis of Electronics Circuits”, Prentice Halls.
2. M.J.McCalla, “Fundamentals of Computer Aided Simulation”, Kluwar Academic Publisher, 1988.
3. J. Vlach and Kishore Singhal, “Computer method for Circuit analysis and Design”, CBS Publishers and Distributors.


Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

Introduction: Evolution of telecommunication, simple telephone communication, Basic Switching system, Manual-switching system.

Cross-Bar Switching: Principal of common control, touch-tone dial telephone, principles of cross bar switching, cross bar switching configuration, cross point technology, cross bar exchange organization.

Electronics Space Division Switching: SPC, centralized SPC, distributed SPC, software architecture, application software, enhanced services, two, three and n-stage networks.

Speech digitization and Transmission: Sampling, vocodors, TDM.
Time Division Switching: Basic time division space and time switching, time multiplexed space and time switching, combination switching, three stages and N-stages combination switching.

Traffic Engineering: Network traffic load parameters, grade of service, and blocking probability, modeling a switching systems, incoming traffic and service characterization, blocking models and loss estimates, delay systems.
Telephone Networks: Subscriber loop system, switching hierarchy, and routing, transmission plan, transmission system, numbering plan, charging plan, signaling techniques, in-channel and common channel signaling techniques.

ISDN: Motivation, new services, network and protocol architecture, transmission channel, user networks interface, signaling, numbering and addressing, service characterization, internetworking ISDN standards.

1. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, “Telecommunication Switching System and Networks”, 1st Edition, PHI, 2001. (Rs. 195/-.)
2. John Bellamy, “Digital Bellamy”, 3rd Edition, John Willey, 2000. (Rs. 4548/-)
3. J.E Flood, “Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks”, Pearson Education, 2002. (Rs. 180/-)

Computer Architecture & Organization

Semester: IV Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04

Introduction: Brief history of computers, basic building blocks of computer, organization & architecture, structure & functions, evolution of Pentium & power PC, various generations of computer evolutions, impact of VLSI on computer systems.

Buses: Concept of buses, types of buses, concept of system bus, overview of various bus architectures used in computer, Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, interconnection structures and bus interconnection, Bus control logic, bus arbitration techniques.

Internal memory: Concept of memory, size, unit, and its organization, computer memory systems overview, hierarchy of memory in computer, memory device characteristics, random access memory, serial access memory, multilevel memories, address translation, memory allocation, advanced DRAM organization.
Cache memory: – concept of cache, performance of cache, types of cache architectures, memory mapping techniques, and page replacement policies

External memory: Construction and working principles of magnetic memories, magnetic disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, optical memory.

I/O Devices: Role of I/O devices in computer, overview of commonly used I/O devices such as keyboard, VDU, mouse. External devices, I/O module and its organization, various data transfer techniques – Programmed I/O, Interrupt driven I/O, Direct memory access (DMA), I/O channels and I/O Processors.

Operating System Support: Operating system overview, role of operating systems in computer, scheduling, memory management, concept of virtual memory.

CPU Organisation: The role of CPU, functions of CPU, CPU structure and CPU functions, processor organization, register organization inside CPU, instruction cycle, instruction pipelining, branch penalty, branch prediction, overview of Pentium processor

Data path design: Concept of data processing unit, Fixed-point arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Designing aspects related to arithmetic operations, combinational ALU and sequential ALU, advanced ALU.

Control Circuit Design: Basic concepts related to control unit, types and design of control circuit such as micro-programmed control unit, and hard wired control unit, microinstruction formats, microinstruction sequencing, microinstruction execution, applications of microprogramming.

System Organisation: Use of computer in commutations, serial communications and parallel communication, network topologies, LAN and WAN in brief, various ways to improve the speed of computer, concept of parallel processing, Flynn’s classification of parallel computers, benefits of parallel processing, multiprocessing.

1. William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture, 4th Edition, PHI, 1998. (Rs. 325/-)
2. John P Hayes, Computer Architecture and Organization, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1998. (Rs. 314/-)
3. Andrew C. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, 3rd Edition, PHI. (Rs. 150/-)
4. M. Morris Maw, Computer System Architecture, 3rd Edition, PHI, 1998. (Rs. 150/-)

C++ Lab

Semester: V Pract: 2Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 02

Introduction: Evolution of programming paradigms, procedural programming, basic features of object oriented programming such as encapsulation, data hiding, data abstraction, inheritance, message passing, dynamic binding, generic programming, benefits of oops.

Tokens, expression, and control structures: Structure of C++ program, introduction to tokens, keywords, identifiers, basic data types, derived data types, declaration of variables, various control structures such as sequence, selection, and loop.

Operators in C++: Scope resolution operators, de-referencing operator, and memory management operators.

Console I/O: Streams, predefined streams, hierarchy of stream classes, unformatted and formatted console I/O operations, user defined manipulators, insertion and extraction, operators.

Functions in C++: Introduction, advantages of functions, function components such as function prototyping, function definition, function call, function parameters, and function return, passing data to a function, function returns data type, parameter passing techniques such as call by value, call by address, and call by reference, return by reference, inline functions, default arguments, function overloading, function overriding.

Pointers: Pointer definition, de-referencing of pointer, parameter passing, void pointer, precedence of * and [ ] operators, pointer to function, pointer to constant object, constant pointer, wild pointers.

Classes and objects: Introduction to classes and objects, programming with member functions and classes, access specifiers such as public, protected, and private, constant member function, static data members, static member functions, local classes, friend function, and friend classes.

Constructor and destructor: Definition of constructor and destructor, benefits of constructors, default constructor, default argument constructor, dynamic initialization, dynamic constructor, copy constructor, parameterized constructor, constructor overloading, constant objects, dynamic objects, pointer to object definition, creation and deletion of dynamic objects, reference to an object, live objects, array of objects, pointer to object members, accessing members through objects, and object pointers, destructors, function set_new_handler ( ), this pointer.

Operator overloading and data conversion: operator overloading, rules for overloading operators, syntax, process of operator overloading, unary operator overloading, binary operator overloading, data conversion, conversion between user defined data type to basic data type, conversion between basic data type to user defined data type, overloading of special operator such as subscript, function call, member access, comma, assignment, new and delete operators, overloading with friend functions, benefits of operator overloading.

Inheritance: Introduction, derived class declaration, visibility of class members, different types of inheritances such as single, multiple, hierarchical, multilevel, hybrid, multipath, inheritance and member accessibility, constructor in derived class, order of invocation of constructor, destructor in derived class, constructor invocation and data member initialization, ambiguity in member access, virtual base class, object composition – delegation.

Virtual Function: introduction, pointer to derived class, array of pointers to derived class, pure virtual function, abstract class, virtual destructors, dynamic binding.

Generic programming: introduction, generic functions, syntax, overloading function template, class template, syntax, class template with multiple arguments, inheritance of class template, class template containership, class template with overloaded operators.


1. E. Balgurusamy, Object oriented programming with C++, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 165/-)
2. Venugopal, Rajkumar, Ravishankar, Master in C++, Tata McGraw Hill, 2001. (Rs. 235/-)
3. Herbert Schildt, The complete reference C++, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 325/-)
4. Bjarne Stroustroup, the C++ programming language, 3rd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1997. (Rs. 508/-)
5. Cohoon, Davidson, C++ program design, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1999. (Rs. 295/-)
6. Robert Lafore, Object oriented programming in Turbo C++, 3rd edition, Galgotia Publication, 2001, (Rs. 320/-)
7. Gary J. Bronson, A first book of C++, 2nd edition, Books / Cole publishing company, 2001. (Rs. 342/-)
8. D. Ravichandran, Programming with C++, Tata McGraw Hill, 2001. (Rs. 190/-)
9. Deitel and Deitel, C++ how to program, 2nd, Prentice Hall, 1998. (Rs. 650/-)

Microprocessor – II

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04

The Intel 80386 Microprocessor:
Brief overview of 8086.
Features,pin diagram and pin descripction of 80386, internal architecture of 80386, register organisation inside 80386, addressing modes of 80386, modes of operation such as real mode, protected mode, and virtual mode.
Memory management in 80386, address translation mechanism, segmentation and segment descriptor tables, segment selectors and segment descriptors
Protection model for 80386, priviledge rules, data access and control transfer, multitasking, task state segment and swiches, I/O leavel protection, paging, protected mode interrupts and exceptions, interrupt priorities and their transfer methods. Virtual 86 mode of operation, protected mode specific instruction, read and write bus cycle timing. Hard ware organisation of 80386 memory address space, 80386 signal interface, bus states, pipelined and non-pipelined bus cycles, memory and I/O interfaces, concept of cache memory, cache memory architectures, cache coherency, cache update policies, cache controller and its operating systems concept.

Pentium processor
Features of Pentium Processor, comparision of pentium with earlier processors, functitionl units of Pentium processor, instuction pipeling for integer instruction and floating point instruction, concept of prefetch, branch prediction, cache overview for pentium.
Pentium signal Interface: Address bus and data bus, misallign transfer, communication with 8/16/32/64 bit devices, bus control signals, bus master signals, system test and initialization signals, system management tools, reliability and error reporting signals.

Bus structure
Concept of bus, overview of various bus architectures, the Industry Standred bus architecture (ISA), introduction to 8 bit and 16 bit transfers.
PCI bus, ntroduction to PCI bus operation, PCI bus functional signal groups.
The IDE interface, timing specification.
SCSI bus, SCSI hardware and SCSI bus protocol.

1. Tribel, “The 80386 DX microprocessor hardware, softwae and interfacing”, PHI.
2. Crawford and Gelsinger, “Programming the 80386”, Sybex Publisher.
3. 80386 Hardware reference manual - Intel Corporation.
4. Tom Shanley, “ Pentium Processor System Architecture”, Addison Wesley.
5. Tom Shanley, “ISA system architeture”, 3rd Edition, Addision Wesley.
6. Tom Shanley, “ PCI System Architeture”, Addison Wesley.
7. F. Schmidt, “SCSI Bus IDE Interface”, by Addison Wesley.
8. Bary Brey, “The Intel Microprocessor” , 4th edition, PHI. (Rs. 325/-)

Digital Communication

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT
Credit: 04

Introduction to Digital Communication

Information theory: Self Information, Entropy, Coding for Discrete sources, Fixed Variable length coding, Prefix condition/Kraft Inequality, Huffman coding, Lempel lev Coding, Coding for Analog sources PCM, Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulation, Channel Models, Binary Symmetric Channel, Channel Capacity.

Linear Block Codes, Cyclic codes, Convolution codes, Code tree, State diagram Convolution Decoding, Trellis Diagram ViterliAlgo, sequential Decoding, Advantages/Disadvantages, Spectral Density, Power Spectral Density, Orthogonalisation, Orthonormal, Gram-Schmidth Procedure.
BPSK, DPSK, DEPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, M-ary Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying, Binary Frequency Shift Keying, M-ary FSK, MSK, Duo Binary.

Baseband Demodulation/Dtection, Signals & Noise, Detection of Baseband data in Gaussian Noise, Matched filter, Correlational filter, Intersymbol Interference, Channel equalisation

1. Proakis, Digital Communication, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1996. (Rs. 275)
2. K. Sam Shanmugam, Digital and Analog Communication systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1996. (Rs. 258/-)
3. Simon Haykin, An Introduction to Analog and digital Communication, John Wiley & Sons, 1989. (Rs. 238/-)
4. Taub, Schilling, “Principles Of communication Systems”, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 230/-)

Feedback Control System

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

Basics of control system: Introduction to control systems, important definitions, Classifications of Control system- Open & Closed loop system, Comparison.

Transfer function & Impulse response: Concept of Transfer Function- Features, advantages & disadvantages, related terminologies.

Block diagram representation & reduction: Canonical form of closed loop system, Rules for Block diagram reduction.

Signal Flow Graph: Properties of Signal Flow Graph, related terminologies, Mason’s gain formula, Application to Electrical networks.

Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems: Analysis of Mechanical systems- Translational & rotational, Electrical systems, Analogous systems- F-V & F-I analogy.

Time Response: Standard test inputs, Time response & Classification, Steady state Analysis- Steady state error, Static error coefficients, Type of system, Disadvantages of static error coefficients, Generalized error coefficients, Transient response analysis- 1st & 2nd order system, PID controllers.

Stability: Concept of stability, Routh- Hurwitz Criterion, Application & limitations.

Root Locus: Concept of Root Locus, Angle & Magnitude criterion, Construction of R.L., Effect of addition of poles & zeros on R.L. & stability, Advantages.

Frequency domain analysis: Advantages & limitations of freq. Domain approach, Relation between Transfer function & freq. Response, Co-relation between time & freq domain for 2nd order system.

Bode Plots: Bode plots for standard factors of open loop T.F., construction of Bode plot, Frequency response specifications, Determination of G.M. & P.M.Determination of T.F. form magnitude plots.

Nyquiest Plots: Polar plots, determination of Stability from polar plot, Nyquiest plot analysis, encirclement, analytic function & singularities, Mapping theorem & principle of argument, Nyquiest stability criterion, advantages.

State Space Analysis: Concept of state, advantages.
Control system components: Servomotors- AC & DC, comparision, Stepper motor, Difference between servo & stepper motor, Synchros, Tachogenerators & potentiometers.

1. Katsuhiko Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 3rd Edition, PHI, 2000. (Rs- 295/-)
2. B.S.Manke, Control Systems, Khanna Publication. (Rs- 75/-)
3. Nagrath, Gopal, Control Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition, New Age-International P. Ltd. (Rs-235/-)
4. Benjamin Kuo, Automatic Control System, 7th Edition, PHI, 19995. (Rs. 225/-)

Analog Filter

Semester: V Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

1) Analog Filter
Classification of Filters.
Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass
Band Elimination Filter
Terminology, Magnitude and Phase Responses

2) Approximation Theory
The Butter worth approximation
Butterworth polynomial,s-domain equation.
The Chebyshev approximations
Equiripple Characteristic
Poly of the Chebyshev Function.
The inverse chebyshev response
comparison of Inverse Chebyshev Responses with other responses

3) Normalization and de normalization
Frequency Transformation
i)Transformation to High – Pass
ii)Transformation to Band – Pass
iii)Transformation to Band – Elimination

4) Passive Network Synthesis
Synthesis of LC and RC Network
Driving Point Synthesis and Properties Using Partial fraction and Continued Fraction (Foster and Coeur Method).
Singly Terminated Ladder Network
Doubly terminatied Ladder network.
Zero Shifting Technique.

5) Active Filter Synthesis
Factored forms of the approximation Theory
The Cascade Function, real Poles and Zeros.
Biquad. of negative and positive feedback Topology.
Impedance Scaling,frequency scaling.

6) The First order active Network
Single Amplifier Band Pass Biquads.
Sallen and key LP Circuit
RC – CR Transformation

7) Leapfrog simulation of ladders
Band – Pass leapfrog filters
Active Network based on passive.
Ladder Structures using Gyrator ,FDNR

8) Filters
Switched capacitor Filters
First and second order Filter.
Leapfrog Switched Capacitor Filter

1. Gobind Daryanani, Principles of Active Network Synthesis and Design, John Wiley & sons, 1976. (Rs. 450/-)
2. Wai-Kai Chen, Passive and Active Filter, John Wiley & sons, 1986. (Rs. 500/-)
3. Valenburg, Analog Filter Design, Oxford University Press, 1986. (Rs. 710/-)
4. L.P.Hulesman, Active Filter, Tata McGraw Hill, 1985. (Rs. 780/-)

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