Wednesday, February 24, 2016

5G Technology - Evolution


CTNTechnology News

This is 5G - Nokia

11 June 2015 - CNBC International

World's fist 5G mobile device

BBC Click

Tech Talk 5G

Ericsson  22 Nov 2013

More videos are there on YouTube on 5G

5G cellular systems Introduction

First 1G to Fifth Generation 5G (Status 2016)

First generation, 1G:   These phones were analogue and were the first mobile or cellular phones to be used. They offered very low levels of spectrum efficiency and security.

Second generation, 2G:   These were based around digital technology and offered much better spectrum efficiency, security and new features such as text messages. But  data rate was low.

Third generation, 3G:   The technology provided high speed data transfer. The original technology was enhanced to allow data up to 14 Mbps and more.

Fourth generation, 4G:   This was an all-IP based technology capable of providing data rates up to 1 Gbps.

5th generation: 5G technology will provide a dramatic increase in  connectivity and coverage. It will facilitate IoT networks in cost efficient manner.  The term World Wide Wireless Web, or WWWW is being coined for this.

5G specifications
Standards bodies have not yet defined the parameters needed to meet a 5G performance level. Net work organisations have set their own aims and developing technology.

Typical parameters for a 5G standard may include:

Network capacity ---- 10 000 times capacity of current network
Peak data rate ---10 Gbps
Cell edge data rate --- 100 Mbps
Latency --- < 1 ms

Summary of Global 5G Initiatives

2014 Status paper

Research and Development relevant to 5G

There are several key areas that are being investigated by research organisations to improve 5G technology. These include:

Millimetre-Wave technologies:   Using frequencies much higher in the frequency spectrum opens up more spectrum and also provides the possibility of having much wide channel bandwidth - possibly 1 - 2 GHz.

However this poses new challenges for handset development where maximum frequencies of around 2 GHz and bandwidths of 10 - 20 MHz are currently in use. For 5G, frequencies of above 50GHz are being considered. The circuit design, the technology, and also the way the system is used is to be developed as these frequencies do not travel as far and are absorbed almost completely by obstacles.

Future PHY / MAC:   The new physical layer and MAC presents many new interesting possibilities in a number of areas:

Waveforms:   One key area of interest is that of the new waveforms that may be seen. OFDM has been used very successfully in 4G LTE as well as a number of other high data rate systems. But, it does have some limitations. New formats being proposed include: GFDM, Generalised Frequency Division Multiplexing, as well as FBMC, Filter Bank Multi-Carrier, UFMC,

Multiple Access Schemes:   A variety of new access schemes are being investigated for 5G technology. Techniques including OFDMA, SCMA, NOMA, PDMA, MUSA and IDMA are being investigated.

Modulation:   Whilst PSK and QAM have provided excellent performance in terms of spectral efficiency, resilience and capacity, they have a drawback of a high peak to average power ratio. Modulation schemes like APSK could provide advantages and is under investigation

Duplex methods:   Currently systems use either frequency division duplex, FDD or time division duplex, TDD. New possibilities are opening up for 5G including flexible duplex.

Massive MIMO:   Although MIMO is being used in many applications from LTE to Wi-Fi, etc, the numbers of antennas is fairly limited -. Using microwave frequencies opens up the possibility of using many tens of antennas on a single equipment.

Dense networks   Reducing the size of cells provides a much more overall effective use of the available spectrum. Techniques to ensure that small cells in the macro-network and deployed as femtocells can operate satisfactorily are required.

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