Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Software as a service


Model One: Traditional
Model Two: Open Source
Model Three: Outsourcing
Model Four: Hybrid
Model Five: Hybrid+
Model Six: Software as a Service (SaaS)
Model Seven: Internet

Android Programming


What Androids Are Made Of
Content Providers
Getting Into Android Development

Sunday, July 26, 2009

Software Testing


Key terms: Software testing, Theory, ISTQB, Interview based theory, Manual & Automation Test process, QTP, Loadrunner, Quality center, Software testing life cycle and terminology

Discusses everything that makes Software testing an interesting topic.

Saturday, July 25, 2009

Thrid Year - SNDT Women's University, Mumbai, India

Communication Electronics

Semester: V
Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

1. Noise
Classification of noise, external noise (Atmospheric, extraterrestrial, industrial), Internal (Thermal, Shot, transit time, partition, low freq-flicker, excess resistor), thermal noise of series parallel resistor, thermal noise of cascaded amplifiers, noise terminology (Noise factor, Noise Figure, Sensitivity, Average noise factor), Noise factor of cascaded networks, Noise factor of amplifiers in cascade, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, Noise in transistor amplifiers, design of low noise networks, equivalent noise representation of a BJT amplifier, Network noise factors, Low noise design, Low noise amplifiers, Inter-modulation distortion.

2. Phase Locked Loop
Definition, basic operation of PLL, Tramient response of PLL, Linear model of PLL (first order), Capture range & lock range of PLL, Major building blocks of PLL – Phase detectors analog mixer, Digital (Ex-OR, RS flip-flop dual D Hip-flop) Vco’s, loop filters, Applications of PLL – FM detector, AM detector, Frequency synthesizer, tracking filter, frequency synchroniser.

3. Small Signal Amplifiers / High Frequency Amplifiers.
Equivalent Circuit of BJT amplifiers of CB, CC, CE configuration, FET CS, CD, CG configuration, High frequency amplifiers, BJT high frequency model. High frequency response of BJT/FET amplifiers, broad banding techniques, feedback, loss less feedback amplifiers, Neutralisation, cascode amplifiers, Automatic gain control, Theory of AGC.

4. Mixers
Frequency mixers, switching mixers, balanced mixers, switching type (4 diode) square law mixers, BJT mixers, FET mixers, and conversion loss of mixer.

5. Designing of RF / IF Amplifier
AM/FM modulator, demodulators

Text Books

1. Jack Smith, “Modern Communication Circuits”, 2nd, Tata McGraw Hill. (Rs. 730/-
2. J. Kennedy, “Communication Systems”, 4th, Tata McGraw. (Rs.260/-)


Semester: V Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC Credit: 04

Identification of frequency bands of interest, Propagation properties of the earth’s ionosphere.

Review of Electromagnetism
Maxell equations, wave equation, Propagation of TEM and non-TEM waves in free space and guided medium. EM radiation in free space, antennas and their properties.

Scattering Parameters
Power flow by TEM modes, relationship with to Z, Y, and h parameters. S matrix in a linear, passive, lossless network – application to microwave circuits, ABCD matrix.

Transmission line filters
Richards’ impedance transformation, synthesis of driving point immittances by means of transmission lines, unit elements, the Kuroda identities, and application to filters, Q of a filter.

Directional Couplers
S matrix, rat race, ring, and branch-line couplers, multi-conductor systems, even and odd mode propagation, broadband couplers.

Gyromagnetic Devices
Behavior of atomic magnetic moments in an external magnetic field, resonance condition, permeability above and below resonance, non-reciprocal properties, applications to circulates and YIG-tuned oscillators.

Microwave solid-state devices and applications
Schottky diode, p-I-n diode, bipolar transistor, MESFET, HEMT, HBT.
Microwave Vacuum Tube devices,

Microwave Measurements
Measurement of power, time & frequency standards and measurement, spectrum analyzer, modulation meter, high frequency oscilloscopes, electromagnetic interference (EMI) – properties, measurements and techniques to minimize its effects.
Microwave Application in radar system.

Text Books
1. Samuel Liao, "Microwave circuits and devices", 2nd edition, PHI, 2000. (Rs.150/-)
2. R. Collin, "Foundation of Microwave Engineering", 2nd edition, McGraw Hill, 1992. (Rs.943/-)
1. E.C.Jordan, "Electromagnetic Radiation", 2nd edition, PHI, 1997. (Rs.175/-)

Digital Signal Processing

Semester: V Lect: 4Hr
Branch:ENC/CST/IT Credit: 04

1. Introduction to DSP:-
Signals, Systems, signal processing, Classification of Signals, continuos and Discrete time signals, sampling of analog signals, quantisation.

2. Discrete Time signals and Systems:-
Discrete time signals, elementary signals, classification and some operation on discrete time signals, Discrete time systems, LTI systems, analysis of LTI systems, DT system analysis by difference equation, realization of the system, Correlation and auto correlation of the system.

3. Z Transforms:-
Z-transforms and its properties, Rational Z transforms, Inverse Z- transforms by power series and partial fraction expansion. Analysis of LTI system in Z domain.

4. Discrete Fourier Transforms:-
Representation of the periodic sequence, properties of Discrete Fourier series, sampling the Z-transform, DFT, DFT as linear transformation, properties of DFT, linear convolution using DFT, TWO dimensional DFT.

5. FFT Algorithms:-
Efficient Computation of DFT, algorithms, Decimation in time algorithm, Decimation in frequency algorithm, general computational consideration of FFT algorithms.

6. Digital Filter Design Techniques:-
Design of a IIR Filters from analog filters by impulse invariant and bilinear transformation method, properties of FIR Digital filters, Design of FIR filters using various window techniques. Comparison of FIR and IIR Filters.

7. Implementation of Discrete time System:- Structure for the realization of DT systems, structure for FIR system, Direct form structure, cascade form structure, lattice structure, Structure for IIR system, Direct Form, signal floe graph and transpose structure, cascade form , parallel form and lattice form.

Text Book

1. John G. Proakis, Dimitris Manolakis, “Digital Signal processing”, 3rd Edition, PHI 1999. (Rs 275/-)

Reference Book

1. S Salivahanan, “Digital Signal Processing”, 1st edition, TMH, 2000. (Approx. Rs 250/-)
2. Oppenham & Scafer, "Discrete Time Signal Processing", PHI, 1989. (Rs 225/-)
3. J. R. Johnson, "Introduction to Digital Signal Processing", PHI, 1992. (Rs 125/-)
4. D. J. Defatta, J. G. Lucas & W. S. Hodgkiss, “Digital Signal Processing”, Wiley & Sons, 1988. (Rs 195/-)
5. Ashok Ambardkar, “Analog and Digital Siganl Processing”, 2nd Edition, Thomson Publication. (Approx. Rs 300/ -)
6. Texas Instruments, DSP Processors Manual. (With Texas Kit Rs.14,000/-)

Circuit Simulation

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

Network Topology: What is network topology, incidence matrix, loop matrix, cut set matrix, fundamental relationships among branch variables, computer generation of topology matrices A, B, and D, finding a tree, generation of B and D.

Nodal Linear Network Analysis: Formulation of linear Nodal equations for linear resistive networks, Gaussian elimination algorithm, LU factorization, Crouts algorithm without row interchange.

Nodal Nonlinear Network Analysis: Introduction, topological formulation of nodal equations, fixed-point iteration concept, Newton- Raphson algorithm, successive approximations, and other methods, rate of convergence.

Hybrid Linear resistive n-port Formulation Algorithm: why hybrid matrix, formulation of linear resistive m-port, linear resistive n-port without controlled sources, inclusive of independent source within n-port.

Transient Analysis of the Circuit: State variable, order of complexity, formulation of the state equations for linear active networks, time domain specification of the state equations.

Multi step Numerical Integration Algorithm: Exactness constraint for multi step algorithm, Adams-Bashforth algorithm, Adams Moultan algorithm, stability of multi step algorithm, convergence of multi step algorithm.

Sparse Matrix technique for Circuit Analysis: Introduction, effect of ordering the equation, determination of fills in LU factorization, near optimum ordering algorithm, Optimal Crouts Algorithm.

1. Loan Chua and Pen Lin, “Computer Aided Analysis of Electronics Circuits”, Prentice Halls.
2. M.J.McCalla, “Fundamentals of Computer Aided Simulation”, Kluwar Academic Publisher, 1988.
3. J. Vlach and Kishore Singhal, “Computer method for Circuit analysis and Design”, CBS Publishers and Distributors.


Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

Introduction: Evolution of telecommunication, simple telephone communication, Basic Switching system, Manual-switching system.

Cross-Bar Switching: Principal of common control, touch-tone dial telephone, principles of cross bar switching, cross bar switching configuration, cross point technology, cross bar exchange organization.

Electronics Space Division Switching: SPC, centralized SPC, distributed SPC, software architecture, application software, enhanced services, two, three and n-stage networks.

Speech digitization and Transmission: Sampling, vocodors, TDM.
Time Division Switching: Basic time division space and time switching, time multiplexed space and time switching, combination switching, three stages and N-stages combination switching.

Traffic Engineering: Network traffic load parameters, grade of service, and blocking probability, modeling a switching systems, incoming traffic and service characterization, blocking models and loss estimates, delay systems.
Telephone Networks: Subscriber loop system, switching hierarchy, and routing, transmission plan, transmission system, numbering plan, charging plan, signaling techniques, in-channel and common channel signaling techniques.

ISDN: Motivation, new services, network and protocol architecture, transmission channel, user networks interface, signaling, numbering and addressing, service characterization, internetworking ISDN standards.

1. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, “Telecommunication Switching System and Networks”, 1st Edition, PHI, 2001. (Rs. 195/-.)
2. John Bellamy, “Digital Bellamy”, 3rd Edition, John Willey, 2000. (Rs. 4548/-)
3. J.E Flood, “Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks”, Pearson Education, 2002. (Rs. 180/-)

Computer Architecture & Organization

Semester: IV Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04

Introduction: Brief history of computers, basic building blocks of computer, organization & architecture, structure & functions, evolution of Pentium & power PC, various generations of computer evolutions, impact of VLSI on computer systems.

Buses: Concept of buses, types of buses, concept of system bus, overview of various bus architectures used in computer, Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, interconnection structures and bus interconnection, Bus control logic, bus arbitration techniques.

Internal memory: Concept of memory, size, unit, and its organization, computer memory systems overview, hierarchy of memory in computer, memory device characteristics, random access memory, serial access memory, multilevel memories, address translation, memory allocation, advanced DRAM organization.
Cache memory: – concept of cache, performance of cache, types of cache architectures, memory mapping techniques, and page replacement policies

External memory: Construction and working principles of magnetic memories, magnetic disk, hard disk, magnetic tape, optical memory.

I/O Devices: Role of I/O devices in computer, overview of commonly used I/O devices such as keyboard, VDU, mouse. External devices, I/O module and its organization, various data transfer techniques – Programmed I/O, Interrupt driven I/O, Direct memory access (DMA), I/O channels and I/O Processors.

Operating System Support: Operating system overview, role of operating systems in computer, scheduling, memory management, concept of virtual memory.

CPU Organisation: The role of CPU, functions of CPU, CPU structure and CPU functions, processor organization, register organization inside CPU, instruction cycle, instruction pipelining, branch penalty, branch prediction, overview of Pentium processor

Data path design: Concept of data processing unit, Fixed-point arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Designing aspects related to arithmetic operations, combinational ALU and sequential ALU, advanced ALU.

Control Circuit Design: Basic concepts related to control unit, types and design of control circuit such as micro-programmed control unit, and hard wired control unit, microinstruction formats, microinstruction sequencing, microinstruction execution, applications of microprogramming.

System Organisation: Use of computer in commutations, serial communications and parallel communication, network topologies, LAN and WAN in brief, various ways to improve the speed of computer, concept of parallel processing, Flynn’s classification of parallel computers, benefits of parallel processing, multiprocessing.

1. William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture, 4th Edition, PHI, 1998. (Rs. 325/-)
2. John P Hayes, Computer Architecture and Organization, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1998. (Rs. 314/-)
3. Andrew C. Tanenbaum, Structured Computer Organization, 3rd Edition, PHI. (Rs. 150/-)
4. M. Morris Maw, Computer System Architecture, 3rd Edition, PHI, 1998. (Rs. 150/-)

C++ Lab

Semester: V Pract: 2Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 02

Introduction: Evolution of programming paradigms, procedural programming, basic features of object oriented programming such as encapsulation, data hiding, data abstraction, inheritance, message passing, dynamic binding, generic programming, benefits of oops.

Tokens, expression, and control structures: Structure of C++ program, introduction to tokens, keywords, identifiers, basic data types, derived data types, declaration of variables, various control structures such as sequence, selection, and loop.

Operators in C++: Scope resolution operators, de-referencing operator, and memory management operators.

Console I/O: Streams, predefined streams, hierarchy of stream classes, unformatted and formatted console I/O operations, user defined manipulators, insertion and extraction, operators.

Functions in C++: Introduction, advantages of functions, function components such as function prototyping, function definition, function call, function parameters, and function return, passing data to a function, function returns data type, parameter passing techniques such as call by value, call by address, and call by reference, return by reference, inline functions, default arguments, function overloading, function overriding.

Pointers: Pointer definition, de-referencing of pointer, parameter passing, void pointer, precedence of * and [ ] operators, pointer to function, pointer to constant object, constant pointer, wild pointers.

Classes and objects: Introduction to classes and objects, programming with member functions and classes, access specifiers such as public, protected, and private, constant member function, static data members, static member functions, local classes, friend function, and friend classes.

Constructor and destructor: Definition of constructor and destructor, benefits of constructors, default constructor, default argument constructor, dynamic initialization, dynamic constructor, copy constructor, parameterized constructor, constructor overloading, constant objects, dynamic objects, pointer to object definition, creation and deletion of dynamic objects, reference to an object, live objects, array of objects, pointer to object members, accessing members through objects, and object pointers, destructors, function set_new_handler ( ), this pointer.

Operator overloading and data conversion: operator overloading, rules for overloading operators, syntax, process of operator overloading, unary operator overloading, binary operator overloading, data conversion, conversion between user defined data type to basic data type, conversion between basic data type to user defined data type, overloading of special operator such as subscript, function call, member access, comma, assignment, new and delete operators, overloading with friend functions, benefits of operator overloading.

Inheritance: Introduction, derived class declaration, visibility of class members, different types of inheritances such as single, multiple, hierarchical, multilevel, hybrid, multipath, inheritance and member accessibility, constructor in derived class, order of invocation of constructor, destructor in derived class, constructor invocation and data member initialization, ambiguity in member access, virtual base class, object composition – delegation.

Virtual Function: introduction, pointer to derived class, array of pointers to derived class, pure virtual function, abstract class, virtual destructors, dynamic binding.

Generic programming: introduction, generic functions, syntax, overloading function template, class template, syntax, class template with multiple arguments, inheritance of class template, class template containership, class template with overloaded operators.


1. E. Balgurusamy, Object oriented programming with C++, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 165/-)
2. Venugopal, Rajkumar, Ravishankar, Master in C++, Tata McGraw Hill, 2001. (Rs. 235/-)
3. Herbert Schildt, The complete reference C++, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 325/-)
4. Bjarne Stroustroup, the C++ programming language, 3rd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1997. (Rs. 508/-)
5. Cohoon, Davidson, C++ program design, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1999. (Rs. 295/-)
6. Robert Lafore, Object oriented programming in Turbo C++, 3rd edition, Galgotia Publication, 2001, (Rs. 320/-)
7. Gary J. Bronson, A first book of C++, 2nd edition, Books / Cole publishing company, 2001. (Rs. 342/-)
8. D. Ravichandran, Programming with C++, Tata McGraw Hill, 2001. (Rs. 190/-)
9. Deitel and Deitel, C++ how to program, 2nd, Prentice Hall, 1998. (Rs. 650/-)

Microprocessor – II

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04

The Intel 80386 Microprocessor:
Brief overview of 8086.
Features,pin diagram and pin descripction of 80386, internal architecture of 80386, register organisation inside 80386, addressing modes of 80386, modes of operation such as real mode, protected mode, and virtual mode.
Memory management in 80386, address translation mechanism, segmentation and segment descriptor tables, segment selectors and segment descriptors
Protection model for 80386, priviledge rules, data access and control transfer, multitasking, task state segment and swiches, I/O leavel protection, paging, protected mode interrupts and exceptions, interrupt priorities and their transfer methods. Virtual 86 mode of operation, protected mode specific instruction, read and write bus cycle timing. Hard ware organisation of 80386 memory address space, 80386 signal interface, bus states, pipelined and non-pipelined bus cycles, memory and I/O interfaces, concept of cache memory, cache memory architectures, cache coherency, cache update policies, cache controller and its operating systems concept.

Pentium processor
Features of Pentium Processor, comparision of pentium with earlier processors, functitionl units of Pentium processor, instuction pipeling for integer instruction and floating point instruction, concept of prefetch, branch prediction, cache overview for pentium.
Pentium signal Interface: Address bus and data bus, misallign transfer, communication with 8/16/32/64 bit devices, bus control signals, bus master signals, system test and initialization signals, system management tools, reliability and error reporting signals.

Bus structure
Concept of bus, overview of various bus architectures, the Industry Standred bus architecture (ISA), introduction to 8 bit and 16 bit transfers.
PCI bus, ntroduction to PCI bus operation, PCI bus functional signal groups.
The IDE interface, timing specification.
SCSI bus, SCSI hardware and SCSI bus protocol.

1. Tribel, “The 80386 DX microprocessor hardware, softwae and interfacing”, PHI.
2. Crawford and Gelsinger, “Programming the 80386”, Sybex Publisher.
3. 80386 Hardware reference manual - Intel Corporation.
4. Tom Shanley, “ Pentium Processor System Architecture”, Addison Wesley.
5. Tom Shanley, “ISA system architeture”, 3rd Edition, Addision Wesley.
6. Tom Shanley, “ PCI System Architeture”, Addison Wesley.
7. F. Schmidt, “SCSI Bus IDE Interface”, by Addison Wesley.
8. Bary Brey, “The Intel Microprocessor” , 4th edition, PHI. (Rs. 325/-)

Digital Communication

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT
Credit: 04

Introduction to Digital Communication

Information theory: Self Information, Entropy, Coding for Discrete sources, Fixed Variable length coding, Prefix condition/Kraft Inequality, Huffman coding, Lempel lev Coding, Coding for Analog sources PCM, Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta Modulation, Channel Models, Binary Symmetric Channel, Channel Capacity.

Linear Block Codes, Cyclic codes, Convolution codes, Code tree, State diagram Convolution Decoding, Trellis Diagram ViterliAlgo, sequential Decoding, Advantages/Disadvantages, Spectral Density, Power Spectral Density, Orthogonalisation, Orthonormal, Gram-Schmidth Procedure.
BPSK, DPSK, DEPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, M-ary Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying, Binary Frequency Shift Keying, M-ary FSK, MSK, Duo Binary.

Baseband Demodulation/Dtection, Signals & Noise, Detection of Baseband data in Gaussian Noise, Matched filter, Correlational filter, Intersymbol Interference, Channel equalisation

1. Proakis, Digital Communication, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1996. (Rs. 275)
2. K. Sam Shanmugam, Digital and Analog Communication systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1996. (Rs. 258/-)
3. Simon Haykin, An Introduction to Analog and digital Communication, John Wiley & Sons, 1989. (Rs. 238/-)
4. Taub, Schilling, “Principles Of communication Systems”, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 230/-)

Feedback Control System

Semester: VI Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

Basics of control system: Introduction to control systems, important definitions, Classifications of Control system- Open & Closed loop system, Comparison.

Transfer function & Impulse response: Concept of Transfer Function- Features, advantages & disadvantages, related terminologies.

Block diagram representation & reduction: Canonical form of closed loop system, Rules for Block diagram reduction.

Signal Flow Graph: Properties of Signal Flow Graph, related terminologies, Mason’s gain formula, Application to Electrical networks.

Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems: Analysis of Mechanical systems- Translational & rotational, Electrical systems, Analogous systems- F-V & F-I analogy.

Time Response: Standard test inputs, Time response & Classification, Steady state Analysis- Steady state error, Static error coefficients, Type of system, Disadvantages of static error coefficients, Generalized error coefficients, Transient response analysis- 1st & 2nd order system, PID controllers.

Stability: Concept of stability, Routh- Hurwitz Criterion, Application & limitations.

Root Locus: Concept of Root Locus, Angle & Magnitude criterion, Construction of R.L., Effect of addition of poles & zeros on R.L. & stability, Advantages.

Frequency domain analysis: Advantages & limitations of freq. Domain approach, Relation between Transfer function & freq. Response, Co-relation between time & freq domain for 2nd order system.

Bode Plots: Bode plots for standard factors of open loop T.F., construction of Bode plot, Frequency response specifications, Determination of G.M. & P.M.Determination of T.F. form magnitude plots.

Nyquiest Plots: Polar plots, determination of Stability from polar plot, Nyquiest plot analysis, encirclement, analytic function & singularities, Mapping theorem & principle of argument, Nyquiest stability criterion, advantages.

State Space Analysis: Concept of state, advantages.
Control system components: Servomotors- AC & DC, comparision, Stepper motor, Difference between servo & stepper motor, Synchros, Tachogenerators & potentiometers.

1. Katsuhiko Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 3rd Edition, PHI, 2000. (Rs- 295/-)
2. B.S.Manke, Control Systems, Khanna Publication. (Rs- 75/-)
3. Nagrath, Gopal, Control Systems Engineering, 3rd Edition, New Age-International P. Ltd. (Rs-235/-)
4. Benjamin Kuo, Automatic Control System, 7th Edition, PHI, 19995. (Rs. 225/-)

Analog Filter

Semester: V Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04

1) Analog Filter
Classification of Filters.
Low Pass, High Pass, Band Pass
Band Elimination Filter
Terminology, Magnitude and Phase Responses

2) Approximation Theory
The Butter worth approximation
Butterworth polynomial,s-domain equation.
The Chebyshev approximations
Equiripple Characteristic
Poly of the Chebyshev Function.
The inverse chebyshev response
comparison of Inverse Chebyshev Responses with other responses

3) Normalization and de normalization
Frequency Transformation
i)Transformation to High – Pass
ii)Transformation to Band – Pass
iii)Transformation to Band – Elimination

4) Passive Network Synthesis
Synthesis of LC and RC Network
Driving Point Synthesis and Properties Using Partial fraction and Continued Fraction (Foster and Coeur Method).
Singly Terminated Ladder Network
Doubly terminatied Ladder network.
Zero Shifting Technique.

5) Active Filter Synthesis
Factored forms of the approximation Theory
The Cascade Function, real Poles and Zeros.
Biquad. of negative and positive feedback Topology.
Impedance Scaling,frequency scaling.

6) The First order active Network
Single Amplifier Band Pass Biquads.
Sallen and key LP Circuit
RC – CR Transformation

7) Leapfrog simulation of ladders
Band – Pass leapfrog filters
Active Network based on passive.
Ladder Structures using Gyrator ,FDNR

8) Filters
Switched capacitor Filters
First and second order Filter.
Leapfrog Switched Capacitor Filter

1. Gobind Daryanani, Principles of Active Network Synthesis and Design, John Wiley & sons, 1976. (Rs. 450/-)
2. Wai-Kai Chen, Passive and Active Filter, John Wiley & sons, 1986. (Rs. 500/-)
3. Valenburg, Analog Filter Design, Oxford University Press, 1986. (Rs. 710/-)
4. L.P.Hulesman, Active Filter, Tata McGraw Hill, 1985. (Rs. 780/-)

Second Year Syllabus - SNDT University Mumbai

Applied Mathematics - III

Semester: III Lect: 4Hr
Branch:ENC/CST/IT Credit: 04



Definition, properties with regards to summation, differentiation and integration. Laplace transform of standard functions. Theorems on Laplace transform, Shifting properties. Laplace transform of t f(t), f(t) / t.
Laplace transform of derivative of a function, integral of a function.
Evaluation of inverse Laplace transform (by standard formulae and partial fraction method)
Laplace transform of periodic functions, step functions and its derivatives.
Convolution integral and its application in finding the inverse Laplace transform.
Solving differential equation by Laplace transform. Applications in Engg.

Orthogonal functions, expression of a function in a series of orthogonal functions.
Fourier series, definition and condition for its existence, Evaluation of Fourier Coefficients.
Even and Odd functions, Evaluation of Fourier series of even and odd functions
Half range sine and cosine series. Parseval’s theorem and its relations.
Complex form of Fourier series, Introduction to Fourier integrals, Fourier transform, Sine transform, Cosine transform-properties and its elementary applications.
Parseval’s identity and evaluation of definite integrals by using it. Applications in Engg.



Complex number, representation in Cartesian, Polar and exponential forms. De Moiver’s Theorem and its application to complex numbers. Complex variable (and variables). Continuity, Differentiability of functions of complex variables. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a function to be analytic (Cauchy Riemann Equations in cartesian and polar co-ordinates with proof). Determining the function of a complex variable f(z) from its real and imaginary parts using Cauchy Riemann Equations. Applications in Engg.


Conformal mapping and bilinear mapping Geometrical interpretations of mapping. Concept of line integral and its relation with Riemann integral. Concept of point function and path independent functions. Contour integral. Cauchy’s theorem for analytic functions and its applications for multiply connected domains. Cauchy’s integral formula and nth derivative of a complex function Morera’s theorem, maximum modulus theorem (Statements and proof’s). Taylor’s and Lorents development of a functions of a complex variable. Singularities – isolated essential singularity and non isolated singularity. Poles, evaluation of residues. Residue theorem and its application to evaluate real integrals. Applications in Engg.


1. B. S. Grewal, Higher Engineering Mathematics, 34th edition, Khanna Publishers, 1998. (Rs. 170).
2. Edwin Kreyszig, Advance Engg. Mathematics, 5th Edition, New Age International (P) Ltd; 1997. (Rs. 295/-)
3. P.N.Wartikar & J. N. Wartikar, Elements of Applied Mathematics, 1st edition, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, 1995. (rs. 110/-)

Discrete Structures and Combinatorics

Semester: III Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: CST Credit: 04

• Logic: Introduction, statement and notations.
Connectives: conjunction, disjunction, negation, statement formulas and truth table, conditional, bi-conditional, well formed formulas, tautology, contradiction, laws of logic’s, equivalence of formulas, duality law, tautological implication, formulas with distinct truth table, other connectives such as XOR, NAND, NOR.
Normal forms: disjunctive normal form, conjunctive normal form, principal disjunctive normal form, principal conjunctive normal form, ordering and uniqueness of normal forms. Principle of mathematical induction.
Predicate calculus: predicates, the statement functions, variables, universal and existential quantifiers, predicate formulas, free and bound variables, the universe of discourse.

• Set Theory: Introduction, basic concept of set theory, set notation and description, inclusion and equality of sets, finite and infinite set, null set, power set.
Basic set operations such as intersection, union, relative and absolute complement, Cartesian product, and symmetric difference. Disjoint sets, partitions of a set, Venn diagram.
Methods of proof for sets: by using example, by using Venn diagram, by using set membership tables, by using definitions. Laws of set theory, proof using previously proven theorem, proofs using indirect method.

• Counting: permutations and combinations, the pigeonhole principle, elements of probability, recurrence relations.

• Relations: Basic definition, relation notation, and set arising from relations.
Properties of relation: reflexive, irreflexive, symmetric, asymmetric, anti-symmetric, transitive.
Relation matrix and graphs of relation: paths in relation and digraph, composition of paths, identification of properties of relations from relation matrix and graph.
Equivalence relation: definition, determination of equivalence relation from partitions, equivalence classes, properties of equivalence classes.
Manipulation of relations: Boolean product of relation matrices, inverse of a relation, composition of a relation, inverse of a composite relation, complementary relation.
Closures: reflexive, symmetric and transitive closure of a relation, transitive closure by Warshall’s algorithm.

• Functions: definition, image of a function, and restriction of function to a set.
Special types of functions: injective, surjective, bijective, invertible, identity, floor, ceiling, and characteristic function of a set, composition of functions.
Permutation function: definition, different properties.
Growth of a function: Big O notation, big  relation and rules of determining  classes of a function.

• Algebraic structure: binary and n-ary operations on a set, representation of binary operation by composite table, properties of binary operations.
Algebraic system: definition, some simple algebraic system, and properties of algebraic system such as homomorphism, epimorphism, monomorphism, isomorphism, and endomorphism. Direct product of algebra, congruence relation.
Semigroups and monoids: definition, notation, product of partition, cyclic monoid, different properties of semigroup and monoid such as homomorphism, epimorphism, monomorphism, isomorphism, endomorphism, automorphism implications of homomorphism.
Product and quotient of Semigroups: congruence relation, quotients of semigroups, and direct product of semigroups, Subsemigroup and submonoid.
Groups: definition, notation, order of a group, abelian group, cyclic group, subgroup, proper subgroup, group homomorphism, kernel of the homomorphism, Cosets and LaGrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, product of groups, quotients of groups.
Ring: definition, properties, ring homomorphism, field.

• Lattice and Boolean algebra: Partial order relation, poset, comparable and incomparable elements, linear ordering, totally order set or chain, lexicographic order, cover of an element, Hasse diagram, different features of Hasse diagram, topological sorting, isomorphism between two poset, extremal elements of posets such as minimal, maximal, least, greatest, upper bound, lower bound, least upper bound, greatest lower bound.
Lattice: Definition, properties of lattice, sublattice, direct product of lattices, lattice homomorphism, isomorphism, endomorphism, automorphism, order preserving, order isomorphism, complete lattice, bounded lattice, complemented lattice, distributive lattice.
Boolean algebra: definition, properties of Boolean algebra, sub algebra, direct product of Boolean algebra, Boolean functions as Boolean polynomials.

• Graphs and Trees: Introduction, definition, applications of graph, finite and infinite graph, incidence and degree, isolate vertex, pendant vertex, null graph.
Paths and Circuits: isomorphism, subgraphs, and coloring of a graph, component of a graph, Euler graph, and operation on graphs, Hamiltonian paths and circuits.
Trees and fundamental circuits: definition, properties of trees, pendant vertices in tree, distance and centers in tree, rooted and binary tree, on counting tree, undirected tree, spanning tree, fundamental circuits, finding all spanning trees of a graph, spanning trees in a weighted graph (Prim’s and Kruskal’s algorithm).


1. J. P. Tremblay, and R. Manohar, Discrete mathematical structures with applications to computer science, Tata McGraw Hill,
2. Bernard Kolman, Robert C. Busby, and Sharon Ross, Discrete mathematical structures, 4th edition, PHI, 2002. (Rs. 195/-)
3. Narsing Deo, Graph theory and applications to engineering and computer science, PHI, 1999. (Rs. 150/-)
4. Alan Doerr and Kenneth Levasseur, Applied discrete structures for computer science, Galgotia Publication, 1998. (Rs- 176/-)
5. C. L. Liu, Elements of Discrete Mathematics, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. (Rs. 175/-)
6. Frank Harary, Graph theory, Narosa Publication, 1998. (Rs. 135/-)
7. Douglas B. West, Introduction to graph theory, PHI, 1999. (Rs- 195/-)

Digital Logic Circuits

Semester: III Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04

Concept of Digital & Analog Circuit

Diodes & Transistors as ‘Switch’ in Digital Circuits, Applications of Digital Logic Circuits, Positive Logic & Negative Logic.

Number Systems & Conversions

Decimal, Binary, Octal & Hexadecimal, Double – Dabble, Hex-Dabble, Octal Dabble & Streamlined Methods of Interconversions.

Representation of Negative Numbers

Signed – Magnitude Method
1’s Complement Method
2’s Complement Method
Arithmetic operations on binary number system, addition, subtraction, multiplication & division. Hexadecimal addition & subtraction. Octal addition & subtraction. 9’s complement & 10’s complement methods.

Special Codes

Weighted & non-weighted codes. Standard 8421 code, XS-3 code & gray code. XS-3 code numbers addition, gray to binary & binary to gray conversions. Concept of parity, odd & even parity. Error detecting methods: parity & forbidden group.

Logic Gates

OR, AND, NOT, NOR, NAND, X-OR gates EX-NOR. Truth-tables & their equivalent Ckts. Using switches diodes & transistors.
NAND & NOR as universal gates.
N-OR gate as parity checker & parity generator. Realization of Boolean expression using gates.
De Morgan’s Theorems
Realization of De Morgan’s theorems using gates.
Reduction Techniques
1) Laws of Boolean algebra
2) K-map reduction techniques
SOP & POS using universal gates.
(concept of minterms & maxterms)
K-map using two, three, four & five variables.
Duality Theorem
K-map reduction techniques : pairs, quads, octets, rolling, overlapping etc.
Quine-Maclusky method .

Combinational Circuits (Data Processing Circuits)

Encoders & Decoders
2 : 4, 3 : 8 encoder BCD to decimal
decoder, IC7445, IC74154
Decoder drivers: 7-segment display (MAN-72)
IC 7446, IC 7447 & IC 7448.
Encoders: Decimal to BCD encoder IC 74147.

Multiplexers & Demultiplexes

IC 74150, IC 74151 & IC 74155
Their applications (Boolean function simplification using mux & demux)

Arithmetic Circuits

Half-adder, full adder, half subtractor, full subtractor
B421 adder – subtractor, BCD adder subtractor, XS-3 adder, 4-bit parallel binary adder-subtractor (without using k-maps).
8421 adder-subtractor using IC 7483.BCD adder using IC 7483,XS-3 adder using IC 7483.

Sequential Circuits

Flip-flops R-S, ƒƒ, ƒK ƒƒ, D ƒƒ, T ƒƒ, master slave JK ƒƒ their properties & truth tables conversion of one type of ƒƒ into another without using K-maps. Timing diagrams IC 7474, IC 7446.

Applications of flip-flops:
Principles of working of a 3-bit ripple counter, synchronous counter, preset table counter, mod-3,mod-6,mod-5,mod-7, mod-10, and mod-12, using decoding gates.
Ring counter,Twisted ring counter.Glitch and gating of a counter.
IC 7490, IC 7493, IC 7495, IC 74193.

Shift Registers
Principle of working of buffer register, shift-left, shift-right register.
Four types of register: SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO,Typical shift register.Mode controlled shift register.

Classification and characteristics of memories.
Methods of address decoding, memory cells.
RAM memories:-TTL RAM,NMOS RAM,Dynamic RAM.

TTL Logic family.
Their principles of working, critical values for I/P, O/P vtg. Levels, curr. Sinking & sourcing, fan-out, noise immunity.
Study of basic 2-i/p TTL NAND gate and its transfer characteristics..

Reference Books:

1. William Gotmann, “Digital Electronics – An Introduction to theory & Practice”, 2nd edition, Rs.110/-
2. Malvino Leach, “Digital Principles & Applications”, 4th edition.
3. R. P. Jain, “Modern Digital Electronics” 2nd edition, Rs.150/-.

Electrical Network Theory

Semester: III
Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC Credit: 04
Graph- oriented, planer, subgraph, concept of tree, Incidence matrix, reduced incidence matrix, Tie- set / fundamental loops of graph, KVL equations for f-loops, rank, Cut-set & its orientation, KCL equations for cut-set, Cut-set matrix, Formulations network equations, Networks with mutual inductances & controlled sources, Duality Concept.Maximum, mini-cut Theorem & Properties.

Transient responses to networks, General & particular solution, R-L & R-C network, Time constant, DC forcing function response, Initial conditions in networks.
RLC network.

State Variable Analysis-
State equations and their formulations, Equivalent source method & topological method, Time-Domain solution of State-Equations.
Laplace Transform and their application to networks.

Z, Y, H, G, ABCD or Transmission parameters, Interconversion of parameters, Condition of reciprocity & Symmetry.

Network functions of some typical networks, Pole- Zero Plot of network functions, restrictions on Pole- Zero locations.

Filter classifications, Mathematical representations of Attenuation, Characteristics Impedance, Attenuation & Phase Constants, Cut-off Frequency.

Equivalent Circuit of transmission lines, Line equations, VSWR, Measurement of various parameters, Transmission line Matrices, Distortions in Transmission Lines, Distortion less line, Characteristics Impedance, Impedance transformation & matching- - single and Double Stub Matching.

Reference Books

1) Gopal Bhise, Prem Chadha, Durgesh Kulshreshta Engineering Network Analysis & Filter Design, 1st Edition, Umesh Publications, 1999. (Rs. 250/-)
2) M.E. Van Valkenberg, Network Analysis, 3rd Edition, PHI, 1997 (Rs 150/-)
3) D Roy Choudhury, Networks & Systems, Fourth Reprint, Wiley Eastern Publications, 1994. (Rs-200/-)
4) Hayt, Kemmerly, Engineering Circuit analysis, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill 2000. (Rs.275/-)

Electronics Measurement and Instruments

Semester: IV Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC Credit: 04

1. Measurement and Error
• Definition, Significance, Methods of Measurements
• Accuracy and Precision
• Significant Figures
• Types of Error
• Statistical Analysis
• Probability of Errors
• Phases of Instruments (Mechanical Instruments, Electrical Instruments, Electronics Instruments)

2. Standards of Measurements
• Classification of Standards
• Standards for Mass, Length, and Volume
• Time and Frequency Standards
• Electrical Standards
• Standards of Temperature and Luminous Intensity
• IEEE Standards

3. Bridge Measurements
• Introduction
• Whetstone Bridge
• Kelvin Bridge
• AC Bridge and Their Application
• Maxwell Bridge
• Hay Bridge
• Schering Bridge
• Unbalance Condition
• Wein Bridge

• Electronic DC Voltmeter
• AC Voltmeter (Average Reading Voltmeter, Peak Reading Voltmeter)
• RMS Voltmeter
• Electronic Multimeter
• Ohm-Meter
• Series Type Ohm-Meter
• Shunt Type Ohm-Meter
• DC Ammeters
• Suspension Galvanometer (D’ Arsonval Galvanometer
• Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument (PMMC Galvanometer)
5. Q-Meter
• Basic Q-Meter Circuit
• Measurement Methods
• Direct Connection
• Series Connection
• Parallel Connection
• Sources of Errors

6. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
• Introduction
• Oscilloscope Block Diagram
• Cathode Ray Tube
• Electrostatic Focusing
• Electrostatic Deflection (Derivation for D-LldEd/2dEa)
• Deflection Sensitivity, Deflection Factor
• Post Deflection Acceleration of Electrostatic Beam
• Screens for CRT
• Vertical Deflection System
• Horizontal Deflection System
• Types of Sweeps
• Dual Trace Oscilloscope
• Sampling Oscilloscope
• Storage Oscilloscope
Principle of Secondary Emission
Variable Persistence Storage
Bistable Storage Oscilloscope
• Digital Storage Oscilloscope
• Comparison Between Analog and Digital Storage Oscilloscope

7. Signal Generation
• Sine Wave Generator
• Frequency Synthesized Signal Generator
• Sweep Frequency Generator
• Function Generator

8. Spectrum Analysis
• Wave Analyzers
• Frequency Selective Wave Analyzers
• Heterodyne Wave Analyzers
• Harmonic Distortion Analyzers
Tuned-Circuit Harmonic Analyzer
Heterodyne Harmonic Analyzer or Wave Meter
• Spectrum Analyzer
• Basic Spectrum Analyzer
• Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyzer
• Applications of the Spectrum Analyzers

9. Transducers
• Introduction
• Structure and Classification
• Piezoelectric Transducers
• Thermocouple
• Photo-Electric Transducer

Text Book
W. D. Cooper," Electronic Instrumentation & Measurement Technique", Prentice Hall India, 1982

1. B. H. Oliver & J.M. Cage (ed.), "Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation", McGraw Hill , 1971
2. A. M. Rudkin , "Electronic Test Equipment", 1981
3. M. L. Meade," Lock-in amplifiers", Peter Peregnius, 1983
4. S. Soclof," Applications of Analog Integrated Circuits",
Prentice Hall, 1987.
5. J. A. Alloca," Electronic Instrumentation", Prentice Hall, 1987
6. A. K. Sawani, “Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation”.

Microprocessor – I

Semester: V Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04

Introduction of Microprocessor
Brief history of Microprocessors, Basic building blocks of microcomputer systems.

8085 Microprocessor
Pin diagram and pin description
Internal architecture with functional block diagram.
Register organization inside 8085

Interfacing devices ---- tri state buffer, decoder, and latch.
Instruction set of 8085: study of instructions from instruction set
of 8085. Grouping of instructions.
Addressing modes of 8085 – their types with suitable examples.
Programming of 8085 - Program development for 8085 using inst. set
Stacks and subroutines – concept of stack and stack pointer, use of PUSH, POP and other stack related instructions, subroutines, their types and execution of subroutines.
I/O data transfer techniques- programmed I/O, interrupt driven I/O, DMA, data transfer with handshake signals and ready signals.
Interrupts - hardware and software interrupts, maskable and Nonmaskable interrupts, vectored and nonvectored interrupts, interrupt structure of 8085,
Instructions related to interrupt like EI, DI, RIM and SIM.
I/O device interfacing – I/O mapped I/O and memory mapped
I/O techniques.
Programmable I/O devices – study of 8155, 8355/8755, block diagram, pin functions and modes of operation.
Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI) 8255-block diagram, pin functions, features, modes of operations, interfacing with 8085.
Programmable Interval Timer 8253/54- block diagram, pin function, features, modes of operations, interfacing with 8085.
Programmable interrupt controller 8259-block diagram, pin function, features, modes of operation, interfacing with 8085.
DMA Controller 8257- block diagram, pin function, features, modes of operation, interfacing with 8085.
ADC/DAC interfacing – study of ADC/DAC IC’S – 0800, 0808,0809,generation of various waveforms
Debugging tools: Assemblers, Logic Analyzers.
8085 Microprocessor based system Design.

Microcontroller 8051
Architecture of 8051, hardware, of 8051, oscillator & clock, Register organization inside 8051,Special function Registers, Internal memory, internal RAM.
Pin Configuration & functions of pins.
Modes for serial I/O operation- mode 0, mode 1, mode 2, mode 3. Modes for interrupt- operation interrupt structure external
interrupt control and priority.
Timer/ counter modes - mode 0, mode 1, mode 2, mode 3.
Power Saving modes -power down mode, idle mode
Instruction set & Addressing modes of 8051
Programming of 8051- programs for addition,subtraction,
multiplication and division.
Interfacing of external memory to 8051
Interfacing of external peripherals to 8051.

Text Books and Reference Books

1. R. S. Gaonkar, “Microprocessor”, 3rd edition, Penram International Publications. (RS. 225/-)
2. Borole and Vibhute, “Microprocessor”, 2nd edition, Technova Publications. (Rs. 220/-)
3. A. P. Godse , “Microprocessor”, 1st edition, Nirali Publications. (Rs. 275/-)
4. A .P. Godse, Gilmore , “Microprocessor”, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill International. (Rs. 765/- )
5. Kenneth J. Ayala, ‘The 8051Microcontroller”, 2nd edition, Penram International. (Rs. 225/-)

Electromagnetic Wave Theory

Semester: IV Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC
Credit: 04

Fundamental relations, Guass’s law, electric potential, continuous charge distribution, equipotential surfaces,Divergence theorem, Poissons & Laplace equations, capacitace, elctrostatic energy, boundary conditions, Uniquness theorem, Dirac delta representation.

Magnetic field, Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, Flux density, field strength, Ampere’s law, Permeability, Magnetostatic energy, Lornetz force equation, Ampere’s force law, Magnetic potential, analogies between electric & magnetic field.Maxwell’s equations: Continuity equation for time varying fields, Maxwell’s equations, Boundary conditions.

Electromagnetic waves:
Waves in free space, Uniform plane waves, Waves in conducting medium, sinusoidal time variations.
Conductors & Dielectrics: Polarization in dielectrics, Normal & oblique incidence, surface impedance, Poynting theorem, poynting vector, interpretation of E*H, power loss in plane conductor.
Guided Waves: TE & TM waves, characteristics of TE & TM waves, TEM waves, velocities of propagation, wave impedance, current flow through conductor.

Transmission lines: Parallel plane transmission line, radio & UHF transmission line, Transmission line charts, Impedance matching by stubs.

Wave Guides: Rectangular guides, TE & TM waves in rectangular wave-guides, nonexistence of TEM waves in wave-guides, Bessel’s function, circular wave-guides, wave & characteristics impedance, attenuation factor & Q of wave-guides.

Radiation & Antenna: Basic antenna parameters, general solution of Maxwell’s equations. Retarded vector potential, electric dipole, current element & dipole, power radiated from Quarter wave monopole or half wave dipole, antenna properties- Radiation pattern, radiation intensity, gain, directive gain, directivity, effective length, efficiency & effective area, relation between radiation resistance, directive gain & effective length, antenna arrays- broad side, end-fire, binomial array, Principle of pattern multiplication

1. Edward Jordan & Kieth Balmain, Electromagnetic waves & radiating systems, 2nd Edition, PHI, 1998. (Rs-175/-)
2. John D. Kraus, Electromagnetics, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1991. (Rs- 300/-)
3. K. D. Prasad, Antenna & Wave Propagation, 3rd Edition, Satya Prakashan New Delhi, 2001. (Rs. 250/-)

Analog Circuits

Semester: IV Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC/CST/IT Credit: 04

Differential Amplifiers:
Diff. Amp. Circuit configurations- dual/single i/p balanced output, dual/single i/p unbalanced output, DC & AC analysis, swamping resistors, constant current bias, current mirror, level shifter.

Operational Amplifiers:
Block diagram of typical Op-Amp, schematic symbol, Ideal Op-Amp, Op-Amp equivalent circuit, Transfer characteristics, Op- Amp parameters- DC – offset voltage & current, compensation for offset voltage, AC parameters- CMRR, slew rate, gain bandwidth product. Thermal drift, Noise.

Closed loop Op-Amp:
Feedback configurations- Inverting, non-inverting & Differential Op-Amp, effect of f/b on different parameters

Frequency Response:
Frequency response, Compensation for frequency, Op-Amp at high frequency, effects of slew rate.
Linear Applications:
Peaking amplifier, summing, scaling, averaging amp, Instrumentation amplifier, Integrator & Differentiator, Log & Antilog amplifier.

Oscillator principles, Barkhausen criterion, Types- Phase shift, Wien Bridge, Quadrature oscillators. Waveform generators- Square, triangular & sweep generator, Voltage controlled oscillator.

Non-linear applications:
Basic comparator, zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger, window detector, V/F & F/V converters, sample & hold circuits.

Specialized IC applications:
IC555 timer - monostable & astable multivibrators, applications.

Phase locked loop:
Operating principle, monolithic PLLs, IC565 PLL applications.

Voltage regulators:
Fixed & variable voltage regulators, IC723 voltage regulators.

Power Amplifiers:
Monolithic power amplifiers, LM 380 power amplifier.

1. Ramakant Gayakwad, “Op-Amps and Linear Integrated circuits”, 3rd edition, PHI, 2000. (Rs 195/-)
2. K.R. Botkar, “Integrated Circuits”, 9th Edition, Khanna Publication, 1996. (Rs –150/-)
3. Graeme Tobey, “Operational Amplifier, Design & applications”, 1985.

Numerical Methods

Semester: IV Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC/ CST / IT Cedit: 04

Computer Arithmetic:
Floating-point representation of numbers, arithmetic operations with normalized floating point numbers, consequences, and errors in numbers, Binary representation of numbers, conversions and conclusions.

Iterative Methods:
Introduction, starting an iterative method, method of successive bisection, False-position method, Newton Raphson method, Secant method, Successive approximation method, comparison of iterative methods, solution of non-linear equations
(By Newton Raphson method)

Solution Of Simultaneous Algebraic Equations:
Introduction, Gauss-elimination method, pivoting, Gauss-seidel iterative method, comparison of direct and iterative methods.
Interpolation: Introduction, Lagrange’s interpolation, difference tables, and truncation error in interpolation.

Least Squares Approximation Of Functions:
Introduction, fitting a straight line, polynomial regression, fitting geometric and exponential functions, multiple linear regressions.

Approximation Of Functions:
Introduction, Taylor series representation

Introduction, formulae for numerical differentiation, numerical integration, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s 1/3 rd and 3/8 th rules, Gaussian quadrature formulae, comparison of integration formulae.

Numerical Solution Of Differential Equations:
Introduction, Euler’s method, Taylor series method, Runge-kutta (R-K) second & fourth order formulae, Predictor-corrector (P-C) method, higher order differential equations, comparison of R-K and P-C methods.

Linear Programming:
Transportation problems, PERT/CPM

1. E. Balagurusamy, Numerical Methods, Tata McGraw- Hill, 2001. (Rs.150/-)
2. S. S. Sastry, Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, 2nd Edition, PHI, 1997. (Rs. 75/-)
3. V. Rajaraman, Computer Oriented Numerical Methods, 3rd Edition, PHI, 1997. (Rs. 59/-)
4. John H. Mathews, Numerical Methods for Mathematics, Science & Engineering, 2nd Edition, PHI, 1998. (Rs. 175/-)

First Year Syllabus - S.N.D.T. University, Mumbai

Applied Mathematics - I

Semester: I Lect: 4Hr
Branch: ENC / CST / IT Credit: 04


Types of Matrices. Adjoint of a matrix, Inverse of a matrix. Elementary transformations. Rank of a matrix. Reduction to a normal form. Partitioning of matrices. System of homogeneous and non – homogeneous equations, their consistency and solutions. Linear dependence and independence of rows and columns of a matrix area in a real field. Eigen values and Eigen vectors. Cayley Hamilton theoram, Minimal Polynominal – Derogatory and non derogatory matrices. Applications in Engg.


Differential equation of 1st order and 1st degree, Linear – equations. Bernoulli’s equations. Differential equation exact differential equations – integrating factors. Differential equations of higher order. Differential operator D, Where f (D) y = X, {x = eax , sin(ax+b), Cos(ax+b), xm , eax f(x). Linear differential equations with constant and variable coefficients. (Cauchy Linear Equations and Legendre’s Liner equations). Simple applications (Where the differential equation is given). Applications in Engg.


Successive differentiation, Leibnitz’s theorem ( without proof ) and applications, Rolle’s theorem, Lagrange’s and Cauchy’s Mean value theorem. Applications in Engg.


Definition of complex numbers Cartesian, Polar and exponential form, De–Moiver’s theorem and roots of complex numbers. Hyperbolic functions Separation real and imaginary parts of circular & Hyperbolic functions. Logarithm of complex numbers. Applications in Engg.
Reference Books:

1. P.N.Wartikar & J. N. Wartikar, Elements of Applied Mathematics, 1st edition, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, 1995. (rs. 110/-)
2. B. S. Grewal, Higher Engineering Mathematics, 34th edition, Khanna Publishers, 1998. (Rs. 170).
3. Shanti Narayan, Matrices, 9th Edition, S. Chand, 1997. (Rs. 45/-)
4. Shanti Narayan, Differential Calculus, 14th Edition, S. Chand, 1996. (Rs. 60/-)
5. A. R. Vashishtha, Matrices, 27th Edition, Krishna Prakashan Mesdia(P) Ltd; 1996. (RS. 75/-)
6. Edwin Kreyszig, Advance Engg. Mathematics, 5th Edition, New Age International (P) Ltd; 1997. (Rs. 295/-)

Applied Mathematics - II

Semester: II
Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC/CST/IT Credit: 04


Partial Differentiation: Definition, differentiation of composite and implicit functions, Euler’s theorem on Homogeneous functions, total differentiation of composite functions using partial differentiation, errors and approximation, extreme values of functions of two variables, applications in engineering.

Vector Algebra And Vector Calcus: Product of three or more vectors, vector differentiation – rules and theorems on vector differentiation, scalar point functions and vector point function, gradient, divergent and curl and applications solenoidal and irrotational fields, scalar potential of irrotational vectors, applications in engineering.

Differentiation Under Integral Sign: Theorems on differentiation under integral sign (without proof), Applications in engineering.


Integral Calculus: Curve tracing (only standard curves) Rectification (only arc length), double Integrals – Change of order of integration, double integration of polar coordinates, application of single and double integration – mass and volume, triple integration, applications in engineering.

Error Functions – Beta And Gamma Functions: Error functions and its properties, simple problems based on it, beta and gamma functions, properties, relation between beta & gamma functions, duplication formula and problems based on it, applications in engineering.

1. P.N.Wartikar & J. N. Wartikar, Elements of Applied Mathematics, 1st edition, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, 1995. (rs. 110/-)
2. B. S. Grewal, Higher Engineering Mathematics, 34th edition, Khanna Publishers, 1998. (Rs. 170).
3. Shanti Narayan, Differential Calculus, 14th Edition, S. Chand, 1996. (Rs. 60/-)
4. Murry Spiega, Vector Analysis
5. Edwin Kreyszig, Advance Engg. Mathematics, 5th Edition, New Age
6. International (P) Ltd; 1997. (Rs. 295/-)

Applied Science – I

Semester: II Lect: 4 Hr
Branch:ENC/CST/IT Credit: 04

Section – I (Physics)

Physics of Semiconductors

Introduction to band theory, metals, semiconductors and insulators; charge carriers in semiconductors; conductivity and mobility of charge carriers; concepts of fermi level; fermi level in Intrinsic and Entrinsic semiconductors; semiconductor junction diodes.

Introduction to Fiber Optic Communication

i] Propagation of light in an optical fiber; TIR, Angle of Acceptance; Numerical Aperture; Index Difference; Types of Fibers i) Step Index Fiber ii) Graded Index Fiber; Advantages of Optical Fiber, Applications of Optical Fiber Communication System.

ii] Optical Sources
Introduction to Lasers; Terms Associated with Lasers; Theory of Ruby Lasers; He-Ne Laser, LED, Semiconductor Lasers.

iii] Photo Detectors
Minority Charge Carrier Injection, Photo Diodes – p-n, p-in Avalanche.


Characteristics of U. S. Waves, Magnetosrictive effect, Magnetosrictive Transducer, Piezoelectric effect, Piezo Quartz Crystal and transducer Applications of U. S. Waves – i) High power applications such as ultrasonic cleaners and cavitation ii) Low power applications such as Non Destructive Testing Methods – flaw detectors, Ultrasonic Thickness Gauges, Sonar’s etc.

Super Conductors

Properties Characterizing Superconductors; Implications of Zero resistivity, Critical temp-Tc, critical magnetic field – Hc, Critical current Ic, Meissner effect, Penetration depth;
Types of superconductors; London’s equation; B.C.S. Theory, Josephson’s Effect and junctions, SQUID, Applications of Superconductors.

Introduction to Electromagnetic

Laws of Physics such as Gauss’s Law, Ampere’s Circuital Law, Solenoidal vector B, Faraday – Lenz’s Law expressed in terms of Maxwell’s equations, Modified form of Ampere’s Law.

1. R. K. Gaur, and S. L. Gupta, Engineering Physics, 7th Edition, Dhanpat Rai Publication Pvt. Ltd., 1997. (165/-)
2. B. L. Theraja, Modern Physics., S. Chand and Company Ltd., 1996. (Rs. 60/-)
3. S. G. Patgawkar, Applied Physics – I, 5th Edition, Technova Publication, 1999. (Rs. 75/-)
4. Arthur Beiser, Perspective of Modern Physics, McGraw Hill, 1997. (Rs. 400/-)
5. Charles Kittle, Solid State Physics, 7th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1996. (Rs. 254/-)
6. I. Wilson and J. F. B. Hawkes, Optoelectronics – An Introduction, 2nd Edition, PHI, 1999. (175/-)

Section – II (Chemistry)

7. Phase Rule

Phase Rule, Water System, Sulphur System, Phase Rule for two Component Alloy Systems, Eutectic System, Bismuth – Cadmium Eutectic System, Lead – Silver System – Simple Eutectic Formation.

8. Electrochemistry, Specific, Equivalent and Molar Conductance

Introduction, Kohlrausch’s Law of Independent Migration of Ions, Laws of Electrolysis, Transport Number, Conductometric Titration.

9. Spectroscopy

Electromagnetic radiation, Spectroscopy, Principle, Instrumentation and Applications of Microwave, IR and UV Visible Spectroscopy, Beer Lamber’s Law.

10. Atomic Structure & Atomic Properties

Rutherford’s Modes, Bohr’s Model, Aufbau’s Principle, Pauli’s Law, Hund’s Rule, Electronic Configuration Atomic Properties like Ionization potential electro negativity, electron affinity, Atomic size, oxidation potential.


1. Glasstone Lewis, Physical Chemistry
2. C. N. Banwell, Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1992. (Rs. 69/-)
3. Anand and Chatwal, Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Himalaya Publishing House, 1997. (Rs. 160/-)

Communication Skills

Semester: I Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC/ CST/ IT Credit: 04


1. Communication

The process, channels and media, Oral and written communication,
Verbal and non-verbal communication, Body language,
Barriers to communication , Developing communication through techniques.

2. Writing Skills

Vocabulary building- use of synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, homophones,word formation, confused set of words.
Writing effective paragraphs-through illustration, example, argument, analysis,description and comparison, expansion of key sentences.
Business correspondence-Principles of correspondence,Form,Formats,
Types of letters-Application with bio-data, enquiries, replies to enquiries, claims, adjustments, sales.

3. Summarising Techniques

One word substitutes( noun, verb,adverb, adjective)
Reduction of sentence length, Reduction of paragraph length,
Paraphrasing longer units.


4. Oral Communication Practice

Group discussion, Extempore speaking- introducing a speaker,
introducing a topic, vote of thanks, offering condolence, making
an announcement, speech on given topic, oral instructions.

5. Meeting Documentation

Notices, Circulars,Agendas,Minutes of meetings

6. Report Writing

Basics-What is a report, Qualities of a good report,
Style of language in reports,Methods,Sequencing, Structures
Types of reports-analytical, feasibility, informative etc.
Non-formal short reports-letter reports, memorandum reports

7. Descriptive Writing

Simple description of an object often used by engineering students
Writing instructions on using an object or performing a process

Reference Books

1. Sushil Bahl, “Business Communication Today”, Response Books, 1996, Rs.125/-

2. Krishna Mohan, R.C. Sharma, “Business Correspondence and Report Writing”, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw Hill, 1997, Rs.110/-

3. Krishna Mohan, Meera Banerji, “Developing Communication Skills”, McMillan & India Ltd., 1997, Rs.88/-

4. E.H.Macgraw, “Basic Managerial Skills For All”, 4th ed., PHI, 1996, Rs.125/-

Basic Electronics

Semester: II Lect: 4 Hr
Branch: ENC/ CST/ IT Credit: 04

Modeling devices: Static characteristics of ideal two terminal and three terminal devices, small signal models of non-linear devices.

Semiconductor diodes, construction and characteristics, Static and dynamic resistance, temperature effects, Avalanche and zener diodes. Small signal models of diodes; some applications of diodes. Specification of diodes, rectifiers ripple factor, rectification efficiency, regulation, and filters.

Bipolar junction transistor: Construction, characteristics. BJT as amplifier, CB, CE, CC configurations. Biasing circuits, dc analysis and stability factor, DC load line and ac load line.

Single stage transistor amplifiers (CB, CC, and CE). h-parameters, Small signal low frequency ac equivalent circuit, h parameter measurements

FET:- Construction, characteristics, amplifier. CS, CD and CG configurations. Biasing. Low frequency small signal ac equivalent circuit of JFET amplifiers.

Text Books / Reference Books
1. Boylstead & Nshelasky, “Electronic Devices & Circuit”, 6th edition, PHI. (Rs.295/-)
2. Milman Grabel, “Microelectronics”
3. V. K. Mehata, Principles of Electronics”, 7th edition. (Rs.210/-)
4. Bhargav Gupta, “Basic Electronics & Linear Circuit”. (Rs.120/-)
5. Kakani – Bhandari, “A Textbook of Electronics”.

Beginning of the Blog

The blog will point out knols in the area of Computer science, Engineering and Technology. More specific focus of the blog is on supporting undergraduate program in Computer Science using the syllabus of three institutes.